By Iranmanesh A., Khosravi B., Alavi S.H.
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Thus, the possible steps of carbon dioxide activation can be written as" Ru-CO2 (20) CO2 + Ru --~~ Ru-CO2 + Ru -~Ru-CO + Ru-O (21) Ru-CO + Ru -~Ru-C + Ru-O (22) Ru-CO ~CO + Ru (23) Here, no spillover transfer from the metal phase to the support is yet considered. However, considering the probable limited mobility of C and carbonyl adspecies, obvious surface oxygen transfer, and therefore diffusion parameters, should be considered for any process modelling. ~_ Ru-CO + Ru-O (24) On Ru/SiO2 and Ru/HSAG, all of these steps were found to be in fast equilibrium from the observed isotopic scrambling equilibrium.
O U O O [ g "00 0 \ ~ o/ Figure 3 9 Scheme of CO oxidation by spillover oxygen provided by the reducible ceria  Other models concern water-gas shift  or steam reforming . ads + (4 - x ) H ads (1) 2Haa ~ = H z + o" (2) (3) CHx,aas + 2CeOz = C O + ~ H z + Ce203 + o (4) H 2 0 + Ce302 = 2 C e O 2 + H 2 Reaction (4) suggests t h a t ceria can be reduced by exchanging oxygen atoms directly with carbonaceous species issued from methane cracking on Pt. Reaction (1) corresponds to a group of elementary steps where x may vary within the range l_
A Characterization of PSU3(q) for q>5 by Iranmanesh A., Khosravi B., Alavi S.H.