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By Iranmanesh A., Khosravi B., Alavi S.H.

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23] R. Craciun, B. J. Gorte, J. Catal. Lett. ,51 (1998), 149. [24] A. Chak-Tong, N. Ching-Fai, L. Meng-Sheng, J. , 185 (1999) 12. [25] C. Mirodatos, V. Ducarme, H. Mozzanega, A. Holmen, J. Sanchez-Marcano, Q. A. Martin, "Natural Gas Conversion" (Holmen, A. et al. Eds), Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, Elsevier, Amsterdam 61 (1991) 41. [26] H. Cordatos, T. Bunluesin, J. M. J. Gorte, J. Phys. , 100 (1996) 785. S. Putna, T. L. J. M. E. Lakis, T. Egami, Catal. Today, 50 (1999) 343. C. F. Yu Yao, J.

Thus, the possible steps of carbon dioxide activation can be written as" Ru-CO2 (20) CO2 + Ru --~~ Ru-CO2 + Ru -~Ru-CO + Ru-O (21) Ru-CO + Ru -~Ru-C + Ru-O (22) Ru-CO ~CO + Ru (23) Here, no spillover transfer from the metal phase to the support is yet considered. However, considering the probable limited mobility of C and carbonyl adspecies, obvious surface oxygen transfer, and therefore diffusion parameters, should be considered for any process modelling. ~_ Ru-CO + Ru-O (24) On Ru/SiO2 and Ru/HSAG, all of these steps were found to be in fast equilibrium from the observed isotopic scrambling equilibrium.

O U O O [ g "00 0 \ ~ o/ Figure 3 9 Scheme of CO oxidation by spillover oxygen provided by the reducible ceria [20] Other models concern water-gas shift [22] or steam reforming [23]. ads + (4 - x ) H ads (1) 2Haa ~ = H z + o" (2) (3) CHx,aas + 2CeOz = C O + ~ H z + Ce203 + o (4) H 2 0 + Ce302 = 2 C e O 2 + H 2 Reaction (4) suggests t h a t ceria can be reduced by exchanging oxygen atoms directly with carbonaceous species issued from methane cracking on Pt. Reaction (1) corresponds to a group of elementary steps where x may vary within the range l_

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A Characterization of PSU3(q) for q>5 by Iranmanesh A., Khosravi B., Alavi S.H.

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