By Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
The promising excessive facts cost instant functions at millimeter wave frequencies quite often and 60 GHz specifically have won a lot awareness lately. although, demanding situations with regards to circuit, structure and measurements in the course of mm-wave CMOS IC layout must be conquer earlier than they could develop into possible for mass market.60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops targeting phase-locked loops for 60 GHz instant transceivers elaborates those demanding situations and proposes ideas for them. The method point layout to circuit point implementation of the total PLL, besides separate implementations of person elements corresponding to voltage managed oscillators, injection locked frequency dividers and their mixtures, are incorporated. in addition, to meet a couple of transceiver topologies concurrently, flexibility is brought within the PLL structure through the use of new dual-mode ILFDs and switchable VCOs, whereas reusing the low frequency elements on the similar time.
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Extra resources for 60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops
15. The first procedure by which the measurement plane is shifted from the equipment to the probe-tip is called calibration. In this process, prior to measuring the DUT, commercial impedance standard substrates (ISS) are used to account for imperfections of VNA, cables, connectors and probes. The known calibration standards like open, short, load, through and line (present on the ISS) generally have no special relationship to the device under test except that both must accommodate the probes spatially.
Keywords Millimeter wave layout Á RF measurements Á Parasitics Á Substrate losses Á Grounding Á Shielding Á Calibration Á De-embedding Integrated circuits at millimeter wave frequencies, in addition to circuit design challenges, pose some extra complexities and uncertainties. These are related firstly, to the layout and floor-plan of components, and secondly, to the measurement of these circuits. Both these issues are under-researched particularly at mm-wave frequencies and it is difficult to locate a “one-stop” book tackling these topics.
In Fig. 13a, the probe-tips are not in-line in y-direction giving rise to mismatch in the measured differential output. In Fig. 13b, the probe-tips are not aligned in the z-direction, due to which one of the differential outputs does not have reliable contact to the bond-pad. This allows common-mode noise to pass and corrupt the measured output. l Only cables, connectors and adapters suitable for mm-wave frequencies should be used in measurements. Smaller wavelengths demand smaller dimensions of the cables and connectors in order to circumvent excitation of circular propagation modes.
60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops by Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund